6. One of the contentions urged in support of the challenge to Article 323B relate to the fact that Tribunals do not follow the normal rules of evidence contained in Evidence Act. In criminal trials, an accused is presumed to be innocent till proved guilty beyond reasonable doubt, and Evidence Act plays an important role, as appreciation of evidence and consequential findings of facts are crucial. The trial would require experience and expertise in criminal law, which means that the Judge or the adjudicator to be legally trained. Tribunals which follow their own summary procedure, are not bound by the strict rules of evidence and the members will not be legally trained. Therefore it may lead to convictions of persons on evidence which is not sufficient in probative value or on the basis of inadmissible evidence. It is submitted that it would thus be a retrograde step for separation of executive from the judiciary.
7. Appeals on issues on law are traditionally heard by courts. Article 323B enable constitution of Tribunals which will be hearing appeals on pure questions of law which is the function of courts. In L. Chandra Kumar v. Union of India (1997) 3 SCC 261, this court considered the validity of only Clause 3(d) of Article 323B but did not consider the validity of other provisions of Article 323B.
8. The appeals relating to constitutional validity of National Company Law Tribunals under the Companies Act, 1956 did not involve the consideration of Article 323B. The constitutional issues raised in TC (Civil) No. 150/2006 were not touched as the power to establish Company Tribunals was not traceable to Article 323B but to several entries of Lists I and III of Seventh Schedule and consequently there was no challenge to this Article.
9. The basis of attack in regard to Part 1B and 1C of Companies Act and the provisions of NTT Act are completely different. The challenge to Part IB & IC of Companies Act, 1956 seeks to derive support from Article 323B by contending that Article 323B is a bar for constitution of any Tribunal in respect of matters not enumerated therein. On the other hand the challenge to NTT Act is based on the challenge to Article 323B itself.
10. We therefore find that these petitions relating to the validity of the NTT Act and the challenge to Article 323B raises issues which did not arise in the two civil appeals. Therefore these cases can not be disposed of in terms of the decision in the civil appeals but requires to be heard separately. We accordingly direct that these matters be delinked and listed separately for hearing.